Programs of CID course ...
LIST OF REFERENCE
PROGRAM OF CREATIVE IMAGINATION DEVELOPMENT (CID) COURSE BASED ON THE THEORY OF INVENTION PROBLEM SOLVING (TRIZ)
for elementary school
© Alla Nesterenko, Petrozavodsk, 1996-1999
Teacher of the Creative Imagination Development Course
Principles of the CID Course
Scheduling Training Material
Interaction of CID and other courses
Forms of conducting CID lessons
Organization and conditions of CID teaching
CID Course Principles
This course is designed for developing children's creative abilities, which allow them to solve problems and bring into existence such creative products as riddles, proverbs, fairytales, etc. The course is aimed at the development of original thinking in elementary school children, formation of interest in proper creativity and in search for rational solutions.
The distinctive feature of the course is that the education of children is based on the principles and methods of the Theory of Invention Problem Solving (further on called TRIZ). The program of the CID course also employs some other non-algorithmic methods of idea generation and some principles of neurolinguistic programming (further on called NLP), which provides efficient development of the child's imagination. The program is based on the following principles.
The program is supported by methodological literature on TRIZ-CID (see the List), as well as by a set of special work-books, which simplifies the description of the program content and improves the organization and quality of material presentation at lessons.
The course volume for the elementary school amounts to 104 academic hours (34 hours a year).
- Dialectic principle. This principle is ensured by training on the TRIZ basis. Any problem occurring in a system is solved in the context of objective laws of its development.
- Principle of training "on the method level" (teaching methods of action). The subject of CID is not information about the structure and properties of specific systems, but models and principles applicable to any system (engineering, biological, art, etc.).
- Principle of transfer to a new cycle. New notions and tools are introduced as a result of the following chain of actions: initial model ' collecting a pool of additional information ' revealing non-compliance between the initial model and new examples (contradictions in a model) ' resolving a contradiction, transfer to a new model…. The work within the framework of the CID course differs from that in the Elkonin-Davydov programs by a greater attention paid to the stage of collecting a pool of information, as well as by a higher degree of freedom and independence of pupils at this stage. It is supposed that second-grade children approach this algorithm. This algorithm should be assimilated and perceived by the moment children transfer to the medium stage.
- Principle of productive output. Any creative work ends with obtaining a meaningful product: solving a problem, creating a riddle or a fairytale, etc.
- Principle of CREATIVE approach to training in creativity. This means that children independently re-discover many principles and models as a result of especially organized training work.
- Principle of regular reproduction of tasks (training principle). The main operations (system transfers, resolving contradictions, evaluation of objects, classifying, etc.) are practiced in training games, which are repeated during the entire training time.
- Feedback principle. Though it is generally assumed that CID in the elementary school is a subject that improves the faculties of the mind (this in fact means that a teacher is not responsible for the training results), it is necessary to control the work result through the answers of children provided by the program of test tasks, and, above all, through the evaluation of creative products.
- Principle of a single conceptual apparatus. Concepts and models introduced during the training process should pass throughout the entire CID course and further on, at the medium stage, through the TRIZ course and can be efficiently used in other subjects.
Scheduling Training Material
Taking into account the above-mentioned principles of the training course, the following four main lines are traced in selecting and scheduling the material.
The productive line in the CID course is auxiliary. It services the imagination and tool lines, as if blending with one or another alternately, and creates the main motivation of teaching. It is obvious that the tasks are entwined; though each one has its own "ideology", which makes it possible to consider separately their scheduling and support.
- The TRIZ tool line (tool line). It is the linchpin of the course. This task includes introduction and drill of concepts, principles, and models (further on called the TRIZ tools or just tools), which makes possible solution of big classes of problems based on the laws of existence and development of systems. Development of such essential thinking qualities as system character, consistency, sensitivity to contradictions and ability to solve them, performed in this course by the TRIZ tools, is envisaged just in this line.
Perception - notion - imagination line (further on called the imagination line). It provides opening of perception channels, training of different kinds of memory, ability to create and preserve bright and lively images and actually paves the way for a successful work of principles and methods obtained as a result of studying the TRIZ tools.
Information (knowledge) line. It provides a student with information on the object properties and structure necessary for the use of the creative tools. The body of compulsory information in the CID course is minimal, necessary for making the subject self-contained. Note: the subject of the CID course is the tools for solving creative problems and preparation of children for learning and using this course. The resources of specific systems are the subject of other training courses. However, it is planned within the framework of this course that children collect their own information banks - their first steps in the work with information pools.
Productive line. Here, it is planned to teach specific algorithms of obtaining creative products. This section includes algorithms of synthesis of riddles and proverbs, creation of a shooting sheet and games, drawing from imagination, such non-algorithmic methods of obtaining new ideas as morphological analysis and method of focal objects.
Interaction of CID with other courses
Though the CID course is planned as self-contained, its introduction in the academic curriculum of the elementary school would be quite legitimate if the tools mastered at this lesson are used in other subjects. The CID course matches well the developing systems of Zankov and especially that of Elkonin-Davydov. The notion apparatus, principles, models and specific exercises learned at a CID lesson can be used in the Zankov system for developing such thinking operations as analysis, synthesis, and comparison. Note that the purposeful development of these thinking abilities at every lesson is one of the distinctive features of the Zankov system.
Created as a chain of training (i.e. problem) tasks, the training courses in the Elkonin-Davydov system imply the ability of children to solve problems, however they do not have methods for teaching this ability to them. Introducing CID will make it possible to eliminate this disadvantage. Moreover, to the author's opinion, supported by a number of Davydov system adherents, the notion apparatus and CID course models are quite universal and can be quite efficiently used at other lessons as a single inter-subject language.
As to the traditional training system, especially in classes with authoritarian teaching style, the CID methods will strongly contradict the general teaching atmosphere and the question of advantage of including this course in the academic curriculum is arguable.
Currently, I.N.Murashskovska is working on the program of "the outworld" and nature study based on the TRIZ-CID for elementary school. There are already such programs as "The Human World", "The Fancy World", "The Logic World" by S.I.Gin with the use the CID elements. Available are also considerable materials on the speech development course (13, 18), some materials appear on the use of the CID elements at reading lessons (21). I hope this process will continue turning CID into an intersubject language for describing and changing systems.
Forms of conducting a CID lesson
At the first stage, the author proposes to organize teaching through lessons-fairytales with a common plot. The plots and purposes are proposed to children at a lesson. A work-book (Traveler Dairy for the first period) is prepared especially for this form of lesson.
The information on the methods of conducting a plot lesson is contained in the work (19). Some characters pass from the first period to the second and third ones (impersonate principles of object changing), however, the lesson now consists of game training (sometimes plot game training) and riddle, proverb, story synthesis tasks. The lesson has a double purpose now: to discover something new concerning "the world organization" (note that not the information, but the tool level is meant here) and to use this knowledge in the creation of a new system. In the second grade, solution of invention problems in the "dialog with a computer" mode is introduced. It brings children closer to the discovery of the basic TRIZ notions.
Organization and conditions of CID teaching
CID is an oral subject. The work in the Work-Book (further on called WB) occupies not more than one third of time at a lesson. The rest of the lesson is devoted to oral work. With a normal organization of the training process, the share of the "teacher's time" at a lesson reduces gradually due to the refusal of the plot motivation of tasks, as well as due to the increase of the children's activity. The question of home tasks is left at the option of a teacher.
SIZE OF A GROUP
Severe requirements should be met as regards the number of children in a group. The optimal number is 10 to 15, but not more than 20 children. This is dictated by the necessity to pay attention to the productive creative activity of all children in a group, to give possibility to every child to express his or her opinion. An exception can be made for classes where a CID lesson is conducted by the main who knows children well, has through methods of organizing oral work of the class, has time resource except the CID lessons and thus can find means for solving the above-mentioned task. In this case, however, in a class where the number of children exceeds 30 such work will not be efficient.
EVALUATING THE PUPIL'S WORK
To my opinion, an opportunity to choose methods for evaluating the children's work should be afforded to the teacher. However, some notes should be made.
- The work without marks aimed at cognitive interests and creative output is obviously the most effective. At a good CID lesson, both the teacher and children forget about marks.
To do without marks at all is relatively easy in classes where the Zankov or Filyakyna systems are employed (where no marks are used even with basic subjects), in good "Davydov" classes, as well as in small-size groups of children where creative work of each child can be publicly discussed in detail. In practice, in authoritarian classes a teacher of a certain subject has sometimes to choose between the presence of marks and the absence of labor discipline. Don't disapprove him if he chooses discipline.
The teacher can give a bad mark in CID in one case only: absence of work or demonstrative negligence while doing it. In other cases, the teacher will have either evaluate the children's work according to a double-mark system ("4" or "5") or invent his own system of marks and incentives. The latter approach, as a creative one, is certainly preferable for evaluating creative work.
DISCIPLINE AT CID LESSONS
Everyone experienced in conducting CID lessons at elementary school, irrespective of his or her pedagogical experience, will agree that it is not easy to "hold" a class when conducting an active oral work with children. This problem is particularly acute for teachers of specific subjects working in authoritarian classes.
- Authoritarian discipline, pressure discipline at CID lessons is just impossible: under such conditions the lesson has no sense.
Immediately establish the rules of a game (better together with children) and strictly observe them. However, do not introduce too hard-and-fast rules: you will run the danger of breaking them carried along by the work. Try to make the lesson interesting so as to make "elimination" from work (game, inquiry) itself an adequate punishment.
Watch the dynamics of the lesson: alternate types of work, switch over the children's attention from one type of work to another using corresponding games.
A special problem is inactive children. They do not participate in the lesson. Most of them are originally in fear facing open problem tasks. Such children generally start working if attention is paid to them and they are praised even for their minute successes.
To bend the class to the teacher's will is not the most complicated task. A far more serious problem is to teach a child, who is afire with enthusiasm for his own idea, to hear and perceive what his classmates say. In tasks, which suggest short multi-version answers, it is useful to establish a rule: one can express his/her opinion only after repeating the answer of a previous pupil. A more restricted solution for CID is tasks "closing" the answers of children with one another or in chains (they are described in the programs for the 2nd and 3rd grades). Besides, your ability to listen to a child with great understanding will rub off on the entire class.
And notå: the teacher may, of course, disturb the understanding between himself and a pupil, but this will hardly help the pupil to achieve success.
TRAINING A CID TEACHER
A CID teacher at elementary school can be a general elementary school teacher, psychologist or and subject teacher who knows the psychology of schoolchildren (irrespective of specialization). To conduct a CID lesson, the CID teacher should take a training TRIZ-CID course (not less than 80 hours). Such courses are organized in a number of cities of Russia and Belarus by the specialists of the "TRIZ-CHANCE" system M.S.Gafitulin, I.N.Murashkovska, A.A.Nesterenko, T.A.Sidorchuk. It is also desirable to participate in the NLP training (M.S.Grinfeld, Saint-Petersburg), theater pedagogics (A.N.Yershova, N.K.Bukatov, Moscow) and psychotechnology (E.V.Kozhara, N.I.Zamorev, Siant-Petersburg).
This program is based on the methodological works by M.S.Gafitullin, I.N.Murashkovska, A.A.Nesterenko, S.V. and O.I.Sarychev, T.A. Sidorchuk, N.N.Khomenko. Some tasks are taken from the practice of S.I.Gin and Ye.A.Dragan.