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Programs of CID course ...
LIST OF REFERENCE
PROGRAM OF CREATIVE IMAGINATION DEVELOPMENT (CID) COURSE BASED ON THE THEORY OF INVENTION PROBLEM SOLVING (TRIZ)for elementary school
© Alla Nesterenko, Petrozavodsk, 1996-1999
Teacher of the Creative Imagination Development Course
PROGRAM OF TRIZ-BASED CID COURSE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
The 1st grade and the 1st quarter of the 2nd grade (38 hrs)
Topical and plot plan
General plot and characters of lessons
EXPLANATORY NOTESThis program is designed for the 1st stage of training children who did not have preliminary preparation at a kindergarten. It is the first part of this CID program (1-4). The 1st stage of training is aimed at preparing the children's imagination and thinking for creative work, revival of stable interest to solving problem tasks, mastering some tools used both in further TRIZ-CID training process and in other academic subjects.
EXPECTABLE TRAINING RESULTSThe following skills are formed by the end of the program training period.
Perception - notion - imagination line
Information support line
THE PROGRAM CONTENTSegmentation and combination. The whole and the parts. (6 hours)
Segmentation of an object into parts. The "system tree" scheme. Links between parts. Combining separate objects into a new whole. Repeated segmentation "in depth". The system lift scheme.
Evaluation of objects and situations. (2 hours)
Revealing positive and negative sides of an object ("The Good-Bad" game). Evaluation of familiar objects. Evaluation of familiar situations. Evaluation of specific properties of objects. Evaluation of objects and situations that are not familiar enough. Evaluation of changed objects.
Time line: preceding and subsequent events. (2 hours)
Remote and near future and past. Making a shooting sheet. Moving along the "time lines", forward and backward.
Modeling objects and phenomena by the Little Creatures Method (LCM). (4 hours)
Models of solids, liquids, and gases. Composite static models. Models of processes (vaporization, freezing of water, etc.).
Features of objects and their perception by a man. (20 hours)
The channel of perception - methods of revealing. The simplest task of revealing. Features perceived visually: color, shape, and size. Features perceived by ear: character of sounding, loudness, sounds pitch, dependence on the source size, duration. Features perceived by touch: mass, relief, surface shape, temperature. Odors, taste properties.
TOPICAL AND PLOT PLAN During the first period, the main "load" is distributed almost equally between the tool line and the imagination line. However, when making the plan and plot of lessons, the tool line is leading.
Below is the plot and topical plan in accordance with the work-book; separately the principles of task planning on the imagination line are described.
Further we'll give the topical scheduling in detail, describe possible sequence of tasks and their plot envelopes.
General plot of lessons and its charactersDuring the 1st period, lessons are united by a common topic of traveling around the Fictitious Country. The Country has castles (the domains of wizards) (they are denoted with a castle on the map), Region of Five Senses (each sense is a city or region), Park of Riddles (it is situated on an island), as well as rivers, seas and dry land (the teacher and children can people it at their discretion.) The Fictitious Country is populated by wizards (each one has its specific function) and heroes who, as is usual, are distinguished into positive and negative. The latter ones put difficulties in the way of travelers and peaceful population, whereas positive heroes mainly ask children for help in solving their problems and propose them various riddles. The teacher can, at his or her discretion, introduce permanent characters in the plot. One should remember that the main characters of the events are schoolchildren-travelers.
TOPICAL TASKS CONTENTDividing objects into parts. Links. Uniting in a new whole
Methodology: I.N.Murashkovska, A.A.Nesterenko
Preceding and subsequent events
Evaluating objects and situations ("Good-Bad" game)
Idea: N.N.Lopatina. Methodology of K.G.Shub, M.N.Shusterman, I.N.Murashkovska
Modeling objects and phenomena by the Little Creatures Method (LCM)
Idea: G.S.Altshuller, S.V.Ivanov, et al. Methodology: I.N.Murashkovska The essence of the method consists in imagining any substance as consisting of very little creatures. The state of aggregation (solid, liquid, gaseous) of a substance depends on the behavior of the creatures, whereas the motion and arrangement of the creatures explain different physical phenomena (9).
5 senses of a man
Methodology: M.S.Gafitulina, A.A.Nesterenko)
Main features of objects
INVENTIVE PROBLEMS FOR THE 1ST PERIOD OF CID TRAINING(texts and explanatory notes for solving)
Problem 1. Topic "COLOR" (N 45 in WB)
A gnome wanted to go on a voyage to meet his friends. His boat was small; it could not bear excess weight. The gnome decided to go for a short time and not to take too much clothing with him. He put on a dark suit, justly thinking that his friends will then better see him (and he wanted to meet them directly on the river). What happened to him? (HIS FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM, BECAUSE HE MET THEM IN THE DARK AND HIS DARK SHIRT WAS UNSEEN. Then the gnome went on a voyage again. That time he put on a light shirt. And what happened? (THAT TIME, AS LUCK WOULD HAVE IT, HE MET HIS FRIENDS UNDER A GLINTING SUN AND THE FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM). The gnome asks us to solve the problem: What color should be the shirt for his friends to see it any time of a day? HIS SHIRT SHOULD BE DARK AND LIGHT.
HOW TO MAKE SUCH A SHIRT? (Answer: A striped sailor's frock)
We meet two birds-quarrelers - a mother and a daughter.
The mother is flying high; her daughter is flying lower. When flying over our street, the mother bird is singing: I see a circle, a see a big circle…, while the daughter does not agree: what do you say, mother, it's not a circle, it's a rectangle. Who is right? What house did the mother and the daughter see? (CYLINDER: IT IS A CIRCLE FROM ABOVE, ITS SIDE-VIEW IS A RECTANGLE.) The same with a cone and a prism.
Problem 3. Topic "Shape" (¹ 56 in WB).
In a cylinder house a homemaker is jamming. The berries are cylindrical. The homemaker puts jam into pots of different sizes. But what a trouble! There are no lids for those pots! There is a craftsman who can make lids of equal size, but the problem is that the pots have different throats. Break-Build Wizard is sure that all these lids can be combined into one that could fit any throat. And there exists a house where you can certainly find such a lid. What kind of lid is it? (CONE)
NOTE: Let's expand on the versions of formulating this very uneasy problem. The lids should be equal - this is the craftsman's condition, and they should be different to close different throats. Here a demonstrative example can be given: two pots with different throats need two different lids. And there is only ONE lid. ONE lid made of DIFFERENT circles. You may propose children to make such a lid. They will see themselves that the solution to this problem is a simple truncated cone.
Problem 4. Topic "Size" "(¹ 62 in WB).
Break-Build Wizard is disappointed. His friend invited him to his place. He said that he had a very spacious apartment. But when the wizard came to his friend's place, he even couldn't enter his apartment. Try to guess who was the friend who played the fool with him. (It was his friend ant. His house seemed very big to him, while we think it was small. ) The possible answer is that it is Little Giant WHO BECAME SMALL JUST AT THAT MOMENT.
Problem 5. Topic "Size" (¹ 61 in WB).
In the Size street, there is a pond where a ball fish lives. No wonder this fish lives in this precisely pond, because facing a flesh-eater, the ball fish balloons out increasing in size by several times. And nobody, even Little Giant himself, whom the fish never asks for help, knows how the ball fish manages to do this. Let's try to solve the riddle of the ball fish. (THE FISH INCREASES IN SIZE BY SWALLOWING A LARGE PORTION OF WATER).
NOTE: to solve this problem, first it is necessary to say WHY it is convenient for the ball fish to be big and WHY it is convenient to be small (a small fish needs less food, it is easier for it to hide from danger; for a big fish it is easier to save itself from a big flesh-eater). Then the problem is solved as a resource one: the fish has to add something to itself in order to increase in size and it hasn't to do this in order to remain small when danger is far. Let's specify that air does not fit - there is too little air in water.
Problem 6. Topic "Size" (¹ 59 in WB).
Little Giant has a daughter - a beautiful princess (or just a beauty). Her father is very strict, he doesn't indulge her, so she lives a small way in her small castle and works like all other people. One day Little Giant made her a gift of a dress-length. The princess liked it so much that she immediately rushed to a tailor. The tailor asked her: do you wish to have a long or a short dress? The princess wants her dress to be long and short at the same time. (EXPLAIN WHAT A LONG DRESS AND WHAT A SHORT DRESS CAN BE USEFUL FOR). The tailor asks the girl whether she wants a wide or a narrow dress and she again wants to have it both ways. (Explain again what is good about a long dress and why a short one is useful).
She doesn't want to ask her father to give her a larger dress-length because she usually solves her problems herself. Let's help her. NOTE: we are solving two contradictions (long - short and wide - narrow). One of them can be solved in class using a real dress - let the children show where to sew bands or a zipper in order to solve the contradiction, the other one can be drawn in a notebook at home.
Task 7. Topic "Sound" (¹ 67 in WB)
A small bucket got tired of living in the same house with those who rattle. It asks for help in moving to a different place. To do this, the bucket must learn to produce a different sound. (POSSIBLE SOLUTION: POUR WATER INTO THE BUCKET AND THE BUCKET WILL BUBBLE).
Task 8. Topic "Mass" (¹ 75 in WB)
The dweller of one of "light" houses - a nice cloth cape - asks how to become heavier: it wants to move to the place of its acquaintance - a fur coat, but with such a light weight she has nothing to do in the fur coat's house. The cape doesn't want to have anything sewn on it. Let's help it solve this problem. (We can propose the cape to dip itself in water. It will become wet and much heavier).
Task 9. Topic "Mass" (¹¹ 76-77 in WB)
We meet three indignant wizards. They are going from the post office and a dispute is growing warm between them. The fact is that Little Giant's daughter sent him a parcel with a big sweet surprise. There is the mass indicated on the parcel - 10 kg (just imagine what a mass it is - 10 kg!). But Little Giant received quite a light parcel; its weight is less than 1 kg.
It was heavy and became light. Little Giant knows precisely that nobody could open the parcel at the post office without his permission. He is sure this has something to do with the wizards. Either Back-Forth confused the time and Little Giant received somebody else's parcel, or Break-Build Wizard separated the greater part from the parcel. The indignant wizards insist on not knowing about this parcel at all.
Let's reconcile the wizards. Try to solve the problem: what did the princess put into the parcel if first it was heavy and then became light. Let's draw a conclusion: if it became lighter on its way to the addressee, it means that it contained something that could "go away" through the closed lid (what kind of little creatures is capable of this?) (ICE CREAM). Make a drawing in the WB.
Task 10. Topic "Temperature" (¹ 82 in WB)
One end of the Relief Desert abuts with the Temperature Mountains. The top of the Mountains is snow-capped. The snow is spongy and fleecy. Below, the snow is melting, dense and tramped down. There are hares running there. A camel can't grasp why hares never sink into the snow. How is the hare's paw "constructed"?
(Represent with a hand the hare's paw on the snow). What should the paw be like for the hare to run on the dense snow? (NARROW, COMPACT). And what should it be like not to sink into the spongy snow? (WIDE, SPREAD). How is the hare's paw "constructed"? (IT CHANGES DEPENDING ON THE SURFACE ON WHICH THE HARE RUNS: NOW WIDE, NOW NARROW).
Task 11. Topic "Farewell to the Fictitious Country (¹ 94 in WB).
The inhabitants of the Fictitious Country ask us to contrive alarm clocks for all inhabitants of the 5 Sense Region. Alarm clocks should awake not only the ears, but also the eyes, nose and the whole body. There should be even an alarm clock to awake tastes!
PERCEPTION - NOTION - IMAGINATION LINEOn this line we teach children to imagine. We teach children to imagine objects previously perceived as the whole, then mentally divide them into parts and combine these parts into a new whole, analyze the newly created whole and compare it with the source objects. In this program, this line is the least tackled, so the author thinks it expedient to propose a morphological table (see Table 1) as a tool for obtaining tasks of different degrees of complexity, and to give an example of how she plans this line. The author, however, does not insist on its correctness.
Table 1. SYNTHESIS OF TASKS ON THE PERCEPTION - NOTION - IMAGINATION LINE
*It is indicated in the predicates of which channels children must "produce information", i.e., describe what they imagined.
Explanatory notes to Table 1
*The notion "elongation of a system grade" was proposed by
I.N.Murashkovska. The author just tries to use it for its own purposes.
VERSION OF A PLAN ON THE IMAGINATION LINE1. Switching on the channels:
2. Remembering an object in different channels: visual (how it looks), audio (how it sounds in contact with different objects), kinesthetic (what it is like by feeling). The work is accompanied by the teacher's comments, and then it is done independently. Objects are changed - from static to dynamic, from familiar to less familiar.
3. Imagining from different points of view.
3.1. A child should imagine himself standing in a certain place of the classroom. He describes an object as if he sees it from that point. Other children must guess what is meant.
3.2. "I hid in a picture". Children imagine that they entered a picture and each of them occupied a certain place there. Each viewer describes the picture from inside looking from the imaginary place. Other children try to guess where each of them hid.
4. Imagining and guessing familiar objects by description (the teacher or some of children describe an object, the rest of the children imagine and guess it). (From familiar objects to less familiar, from static to dynamic).
5. Imagining an unfamiliar object by description (exercise of type 51 in WB).
6. Imagining familiar objects without a description, original oral story about an imagined object or drawing (from familiar object to less familiar, from static to dynamic, from "0" grade to +1 grade). For instance, imagining, describing and drawing a wizard (WB N 4, 16, 58), animals from a zoo (N 44), Wicked Eraser (N 43), an occupant of a triangular house (N 52)… Let's imagine that we entered the Break-Build Wizard's castle. What did we see there? We entered a mysterious wood… We are sailing down the river… In all the tasks, a verbal support is used. I see… I hear… I feel…" (20).
7. Imagining fantastic transformations of an object. ("In the Color street, there are houses, the occupants of which can change as they like, unchanged remains only their color. Imagine how such an occupant changes. " First the teacher describes, children imagine, draw, then the children imagine, describe and draw themselves…) The exercise is repeated (NN 39, 40, 50, 57)
8. Imagining oneself inside a changed system (first the teacher describes, then the children continue). For instance: we are traveling inside a huge boot magnified by the Little Giant. What do we see, hear, feel? (N 64, 65). (20)
ACQUAINTANCE WITH THE FICTITIOUS COUNTRY
LESSON ON THE TOPIC "COLOR"
EXAMPLES OF LESSONS ON THE TOPIC "SOUND"
EXAMPLES OF LESSONS (1st PERIOD)
LESSON 1. ACQUAINTANCE WITH FICTITIOUS COUNTRYPurpose of the lesson:
A bright saucer, a toy - the main character of the lesson (optionally), an enlarged sheet of the workook.
THE PROCESS OF THE LESSON
1. The teacher gets acquainted with children, deciphers the term "CID", explains the goal of the lesson to the children (WE COMPOSE A VERY LONG FAIRYTALE ABOUT THE WONDERFUL FICTITIOUS COUNTRY). What does it mean TO IMAGINE - to imagine things which are not in front of us".
2. Training in imagining (5). The teacher shows a magic saucer. If a child imagines it on the desk in front of him or mentally suspends it in the air before his eyes, imagined objects will appear on it. Children will attentively examine the saucer, listen how it sounds, touch its surface (the perception channels are switched on). They put an imagined sparrow on the saucer and describe it in 3 channels. For the success achieved in these exercises the children get imaginary tickets to the Fictitious Country. Each child names the color of his ticket.
3. The children open work-books and read the word "Fictitious Country", outline the first letter with a color pencil and draw their ticket in the first window.
3. The voyage to the Fictitious Country. The children imitate the sounds produced by the train.
5. Acquaintance with Break-Build Wizard. Reading a guide to how to call the Wizard. To do this:
An object is one, but it consists of many parts
And one more:
One object has many features.
Before the children's eyes the teacher divides an object into parts, then combines the parts and comments: I show you what Break-Build Wizard deals with. The children learn that Break-Build Wizard is responsible for dividing and combining. A motion support is used, for instance, the children spread their palms to the word Break and grip their fingers to the word Build.
6. The teacher proposes to solve the following problem: Is their Break-Build Wizard here, in the Fictitious Country? And the class arrives to a conclusion, that Break-Build Wizard is everywhere, where something is divided and combined. What is he like? They can answer this question all together. The children ask questions (Has he a beard? What does he wear?) and answer these questions themselves using their own notion of wizards. If the class is inactive, the teacher asks questions. Break-Build Wizard shows at least one detail (for instance, a cap). He asks the children to draw some of his parts in their notebooks (one of the parts they imagine or part of his cap).
If there is no time left, the task is given as homework.
7. The rite of leaving the Fictitious Country (similarly to entering - by train). (Further on called Leaving Rite).
LESSON 16. TOPIC "COLOR"Purposes of the lesson:
1. ENTRANCE RITE.
2. There is the COLOR street in front of us. At the entrance we see a strange poster: "EVERY HUNTER WANTS TO KNOW WHERE THE PHEASANT IS SITTING". What is it doing here? What is it for? (WE FIND OUT THAT THIS POSTER IS FOR REMEMBERING THE MAIN COLORS OF THE RAINBOW). The children paint out the circle in WB, using the colors of the rainbow in the right order, and play "the circle claps" game (the teacher declares from what color and in what direction the children should move and claps several times. Each clap means a transfer to a new color. The teacher stops and the children check whether their color coincides with that at which the teacher stopped. Find out whether the rainbow has all colors. What colors are absent? At home the children will try to paint a FLOWER different colors; they will paint every petal a different color.
3. Amazing beings live in the first house. They can change their skin. The teacher shows a ball - an inhabitant of the street. Let's shut the eyes and imagine how this inhabitant can change. Imagine that the ball starts growing, becomes as big as a chair and then even bigger. Then it starts elongating, becomes like a snake and creeps up and down the classroom walls. And now it turns into a spinner and sings…, and now he is fluffy and reminds an elephant…. (The children raise their hands to make signals to the teacher that they have imagined everything). Who can say what doesn't change in our ball? (COLOR DOESN'T CHANGE). So the inhabitants of these houses change everything but the COLOR. Let's make a drawing in WB of how a white inhabitant changes and then how a red one does. Compare the drawings.
4. It is clear that these beings choose relatives also by color. Let's find the relatives of a red inhabitant in the classroom (those wearing red clothes) and discuss who of them is a blood relative and who is distant. The children find objects-relatives around themselves and put some of them on the teacher's table.
5. It is the rule with the inhabitants of this street that all relatives live in the same house. But the houses became too small for them. So the red inhabitants decided to build a house consisting of three blocks (see WB). The problem is how to distribute them among the houses if all the houses are red. (LET'S DISCUSS: GROUPING BY SHAPE IS NO GOOD, BECAUSE ANY INHABITANT OF THE COLOR STREET CAN EASILY CHANGE ITS SHAPE. THE CONCLUSION IS THAT OBJECTS OF THE SAME COLOR (FOR INSTANCE, RED) CAN BE GROUPED BY SHADES OF THIS COLOR. Now let's paint the ovals on the scheme in WB, where it is proposed to divide each of the rainbow colors into 3 shades. We see that the rainbow, even with all shades of its colors, does not have all colors! Now think of the homework.
6. LEAVING RITE
LESSON 17Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
TEACHING AIDS: pots with blue and yellow paints, blue and yellow pencils or felt-tip pens, a sheet of white paper on the blackboard, a brush.
THE PROCESS OF THE LESSON
1. Checking the homework: the children name colors of their flowers without repeating them. The winner is the last one who names a color.
2. Imagining the Color street, describing it. Drawing some simple details of landscape on the blackboard and linking them to each other. Describing the obtained result trying to imagine this picture in bright colors. (15)
3. The inhabitants of the street ask us for help. The problem is that the Wicked Eraser raided the Color street again and ate all green color. Imagine that the picture you have just drawn hasn't color. What shall we do? (The green color is unavailable in the Fictitious Country at the moment. The inhabitants ask Break-Build Wizard. He answers enigmatically: I only can divide and combine. That's all. Are my abilities of use? (WE FIND OUT THAT THE GREEN COLOR CAN BE PRODUCED BY COMBINING YELLOW AND BLUE). If this question is simple for the children, get down to producing other colors, including "non-rainbow" ones, for instance, brown.
4. The children draw the portrait of the Wicked Eraser.
5. The grateful inhabitants of the street teach us to play their favorite game "change the color". The children compete in finding DIFFERENT methods for changing the color of, for instance, a rubber ball (painting with chalk, wrapping in a piece of cloth, throwing - the color seems different in flight, etc).
6. As you know, many inhabitants of the Color street can change everything except color. That is why they like to look at beings capable of changing the color BY THEMSELVES. The homework is to draw animals that can change color. They will live in the zoo situated in the Color street.
7. LEAVING RITE
LESSON 18Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
TEACHING AIDS: A toy gnome.
THE PROCESS OF THE LESSON
1. Entrance rite.
2. We travel around an imaginary zoo inhabited by beings capable of changing their color (octopus, sandling, chameleon). Describe how they behave and what they do.
3. The Color street does not end with the zoo. There is a wide river starting at its end (see the map in WB). Here we meet a traveling gnome who also brought us his problem. A gnome wanted to go on a voyage to meet his friends. His boat was small, it could not bear excess weight. The gnome decided to go for a short time and not to take too much clothing with him. He put on a dark suit, justly thinking that his friend will then better see him (and he wanted to meet them directly on the river). What do you think happened to him? (HIS FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM, BECAUSE HE MET THEM IN THE DARK AND HIS DARK SHIRT WAS UNSEEN. Then the gnome went on a voyage again. That time he put on a light shirt. And what happened? (THAT TIME, AS LUCK WOULD HAVE IT, HE MET HIS FRIENDS UNDER A GLINTING SUN AND THE FRIENDS DID NOT NOTICE HIM). The gnome asks us to solve the problem: What color should be the shirt for his friends to see it any time of a day? HIS SHIRT SHOULD BE BOTH DARK AND LIGHT.
HOW TO MAKE SUCH A SHIRT? (A STRIPED SAILOR'S FROCK) The children draw a striped sailor's frock for the gnome.
4.Another favorite competition in the Color street. There are balls drawn in WB. Paint them so that they become both dark and light, but try to find AS MANY QUITE DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS AS POSSIBLE).
5. If there is time left, let children imagine and draw the COLOR street.
LESSON 24Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
1. Entrance rite.
2. Checking and discussing the homework.
3. Little Giant and his daughter invite us for a walk in the Park of Riddles. We go there by boat. As we approach it we describe what we SEE, HEAR AND FEEL THERE.
4. There is a big tree in front of us. A mysterious being peeps out of its hole and says: I am shaped into a sphere, my color is orange, I am of the size of a small ball, there are solid and liquid creatures inside me". The children learn to solve the riddle. They shut their eyes and imagine what is described in the riddle. Each child who has already imagined the ball raises his hand. Now the children must paint the ball orange and make it bright. Who has managed? Now imagine the size, the one described in the riddle…" If you have solved the riddle, do not call out the answer, but tell it into the teacher's ear (sometimes the children draw the answer). NOTE: further on it is necessary to repeatedly return to the problem of HOW TO IMAGINE THE ANSWER.
5. Then we meet an amusement park on our way. Here we can propose riddles to one another. The riddles in this park are composed using different supports (see WB):
SHAPE SUPPORT _____________(HOW) _____________
SIZE SUPPORT ____ (HOW)________________________
WHAT DOES IT CONSIST OF (A DRAWING MADE OF LITTLE CREATURES) Let's start a game: one pupil leaves the classroom and stays behind the door. He is a riddle solver. The rest of the children will compose riddles for him. Objects are proposed by the teacher: a matchbox, a pot, a bulb, a plum and the like.
NOTE: simple shapes (cylinder, cone) can be just named, as for more complex shapes, it would be more convenient to compare them (for instance, as a boat); as for size, it is always necessary to compare it (a given object is bigger or smaller than some familiar object.) In this case, however, it is necessary to specify the size meant). It is not necessary to make a detailed drawing in the last column, but just to indicate the little creatures constituting the object (to draw one liquid and one solid creature). The children can either write or draw the answer to the riddles.
6. There is a game computer in the Park of Riddle. It also proposes a riddle, but it itself does not tell us anything about a mysterious object. It only can answer "yes" or "no" to our questions. If it is impossible to give such an answer, the program failure occurs and the computer clicks. The teacher imitates the computer and the children ask question (6).
7. LEAVING RITE
LESSON 25. TOPIC "SOUND"Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
1. ENTRANCE RITE
2.Checking homework. The children propose their riddles, solve riddles. The most interesting part is drawing (it takes up to 20 minutes).
3.We enter another city. At the first glance it is rather plain. But there are so many trees, birds, and animals in it! The sounds of music come from every window, the chant of birds; sometimes just creak or even sirens are heard. But when we come closer it suddenly becomes quiet. Did the inhabitants hide when they saw strangers? Did something happen to our ears? (To make sure that we hear well, let's play a game (the sounds in the classroom… in the hall… in the street…) (5 minutes).
4. .For the sounds not to be afraid of us, ask each pupil to produce one sound but so that the sounds do not repeat. Let the children give names to some sounds if possible. Then ask some of the children to repeat the sounds, which registered. (5 minutes)
5.Creatures producing different sounds live in the houses of the City of Sounds: those who cheep live in one house, those who rattle live in another house, etc. Let's collect a bank of sounds in WB and connect with arrows the figures of the dwellers and their houses.
6.The bucket is tired of living in the same house with those who rattle. It wants to move to another house and asks us for help. To do this, the bucket must learn to produce a different sound (POSSIBLE SOLUTION: POUR WATER INTO THE BUCKET. IT WILL BUBBLE.)
7. Home task: continue collecting sounds.
LESSON 26Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
1. ENTRANCE RITE
2. Checking homework. The children name or emit new sounds.
3. Here some sounding object appears (for instance, a balalaika with a phis drawn on it.) which agrees to be our guide. It asks us a tricky question: do we know where sounds come from? Let's make some experiment: emit a sound by tickling one of the balalika's strings and then make so that it doesn't emit sound (you'll have to string it). Then try to emit a sound with the aid of a ruler attached to a table, and then pronounce something yourselves putting your hands on your necks. Let's draw a conclusion: EVERYTHING THAT TREMBLES EMITS SOUND. What trembles when we speak to one another? (AIR).
4. Examining attentively the map of the city of sounds (work with the map). There are two wide and very long streets in the city of sounds. One of them is called the Loudness Highway and the other one is called the High-Rise Alley. When an inhabitant walks along the Loudness Highway, its sounds change from very quiet to terribly loud. (LET US DISCUSS WHERE AND WHEN YOU HEARD VERY QUIET SOUNDS AND VERY LOUD SOUNDS). LET'S WALK ALONG THE LOUDNESS HIGHWAY NAMING INCREASINGLY LOUD SOUNDS AND THEIR SOURCES (a palpitation of the leaves, plash of waves, the noise produced by water flowing from a tap, loud voice, the footsteps of a giant…)
5. It is interesting to know how this Highway of Loudness is organized? How can one make a sound quieter or louder? Take a whistle and try to change its sound by different methods. (The children will possibly propose to use something that absorbs sound (for instance, cloth), or something that amplifies it (for instance, a voice-pipe).
6. There is one more question: suppose, a car is going along the Loudness Highway while you are standing at the opposite end of the Highway. When and why will you hear the sound sooner: when putting your ear to the ground or when standing as usually. The little creatures will help you answer this question. Let children represent solid little creatures. Since sound is a wave, let us represent it by pushing the last creature (he will pass the push to the following one and so on). Now let us do the same with the liquid little creatures and, finally, with the gaseous little creatures, which move chaotically and transfer hits during their random meetings. Which little creatures transfer sound (pushes) better and faster? Where does the sound propagate better: in a solid, liquid or gaseous substance? Write down the answer in WB.
NOTE: A question may arise here why, for instance, a hard pillow does not carry sound well. The explanation: when the creatures hold one another's hands not rigidly, they transfer hits not in one direction, but in different directions, so the hit just cannot go too far.
7. LEAVING RITE
LESSON 27Purposes and tasks of the lesson:
1. ENTRANCE RITE
2. Let's continue our tour of the City of Sounds. Let's return to the bank again. One of the pupils emits sounds, other children say what they are like ("This is the squeak of a mouse…", the scratch of a knife on glass…, the doors is not oiled…").
3. The balalaika keeps on acquainting us with the life of sounds. We walk along the High-Rise Alley. At its very beginning the sounds have the highest pitch, then the pitch becomes lower and lower. Who can produce high-pitch and low-pitch sounds by tickling one string of the balalaika? What does the sound pitch depend on? Try to do the same with the ruler and other objects. Find out that the sound pitch depends on the string size. NOTE: this dependence is well illustrated with the aid of a collapsible child's pipe. By removing a section by section, one can change the pitch height.
4. We sail down the River of Duration. Here sounds change from the shortest ones to terribly long. The river flows in the Ocean of Sounds. Discuss what the sound duration depends on (why one sound is long and another one is short? Think of and make experiments.
5. Now we can visit the School of Sounds where the inhabitants of the city learn to correctly emit different sounds using guides. Train to emit sounds in accordance with the guide (without copying). For instance: Emit, please, a squeak as high as the frog's voice, 2 sec long and loud as the school bell.
6.If there is time left, you can propose children to organize "orchestras of quiet music" on the desks ("quiet" is a very important remark here).
7. LEAVING RITE
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Send your comments and proposals to:
Nikolai Khomenko email@example.com
07 Apr 2002